1. Exposition

Whose song is this?

Judges 5:1 (ESV)

1 Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day:

In the ESV it sounds as though it is both Deborah’s and Barak’s, but in the original the verb is in the feminine singular form rather than the common plural, which suggests it is more so Deborah’s song. Judges 5:3, Judges 5:9, Judges 5:13, and Judges 5:21 also all use the first-person singular pronoun, indicating a single author. Judges 5:7 identifies Deborah as the author. Yet there is evidence that the song is indeed multi-voiced: “Deborah herself is addressed (along with Barak) in the second person in Judges 5:12 and in the third person in Judges 5:15."1