1. 1 John 1:1 (ESV)
  2. Exposition

What does the "we" in the various clauses refer to?

1 John 1:1 (ESV)

1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word of life

The “we” in the various clauses in this verse may be a simple plural, referring to the author and the readers as one group of people. It could instead be specifically used for a group that is composed of the author and his brethren who also were eyewitnesses. Some commentators suppose that it is either an editorial or magisterial “we.”1