1. Revelation 20:4 (ESV)
  2. Exposition

Who might the souls of the beheaded be?

Revelation 20:4 (ESV)

4 Then I saw thrones, and seated on them were those to whom the authority to judge was committed. Also I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.

These martyrs are the faithful Christians who were not ashamed of the gospel and proclaimed the lordship of Jesus Christ. Examples would be Stephen (Acts 7:54–60), James (Acts 12:1–2), Antipas (Revelation 2:13).