1. Exposition

Who are all meant by “every creature…on earth”?

Revelation 5:13 (ESV)

13 And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!”

The phrase is comprehensive and includes every person alive in John’s day, including the saints of the seven churches (in all their weaknesses), the Caesar in his palace and all his unbelieving advisors, folks of distant civilizations unknown to John, people rich and poor, small and great, as well as the animals that live on earth (see furtherPsalm 148:1–14).